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The earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city.The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration, mainly Italians and Spaniards, radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook; 62.5% of the population has full or partial Italian ancestry, Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency. S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship.Argentina (masculine argentino) means in Italian "(made) of silver, silver coloured", probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine "(made) of silver" The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in (same construction as Old French acerin "(made) of steel", from acier "steel" -in or sapin "(made) of fir wood", from OF sap "fir" -in).The Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver".The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism of the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country.As in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern.In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina.The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto.
However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his resignation and discarded the constitution.
Although "Argentina" was already in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, and "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence.
The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents.
With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation.
The sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous city (ciudad autónoma), Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation (Spanish: Capital Federal) as decided by Congress.