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The appeal to the quoted text as coming from “Scripture” would also seem to militate against a possible objection that the quoted phrase was a popular cliche which was independently quoted by Luke and Paul.
Paul also quotes from Luke’s gospel, in connection with the Lord’s supper, in 1 Corinthians 11:“For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you: The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed, took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, ‘This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me.’ In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, ‘This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me.’ For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.”In addition, 1 Timothy 6 also makes reference to Pontius Pilate, suggesting that its author (in my view, Paul) was aware of the circumstances surrounding Jesus’ trial. If – as I maintain – the pastoral epistles are genuinely Pauline, then Luke’s gospel (or, at the very least, Luke’s source material) must predate AD60 by far enough to be regarded as Scripture at the time of the writing of 1 Timothy (probably the early 60? Furthermore, I would argue, it is likely to also predate the writing of 1 Corinthians in the early 50’s.
s or the Great Fire of Rome from which it resulted.
If such events had already taken place by the time Luke wrote Acts, one would expect to find a pertaining description.
Besides the testimony of the early church fathers, positive reasons for thinking that the pastoral epistles belong to Paul include the counter-productivity of 1 Tim (“…although I was formerly a blasphemer, a persecutor and an insolent man…”) and the fact that 2 Timothy and Titus warns against deceivers, whilst none of them include any deviant doctrine.
Clearly, then, Luke (or, at the very least, the source material upon which Luke is based) must pre-date the writing of 1 Timothy (we’ll come to the dating of 1 Timothy shortly).
But there is also, in my opinion, a very strong argument for supposing that 1 Timothy can be taken as having been written before AD68.
Among the fragments that have been found from 1947 and following in the Qumran caves around the Dead Sea, are some fragments which appear to be from 1 Timothy and 4:1-3 (fragment 7Q4).
The two earliest biographies of Alexander the Great, for example, were penned by Arrian and Plutarch more than 400 years following his death.
But classical historians still regard them as being trustworthy. Sherwin-White argues in his book, “Herodotus enables us to test the tempo of myth-making, and the tests suggest that even two generations are too short a span to allow the mythical tendency to prevail over the hard historic core of the oral tradition.” Sherwin-white further argues that, for the gospels to be legends, the rate of legendary accumulation would have to be “unbelievable”. It is generally agreed among scholars that Mark was written first, and Matthew and Luke subsequently utilised Mark’s gospel as source material, and then John was written last (and independently).