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Such a match will generally fail when the light source shining on the sample is changed.
Colour (whether coloured light or print) is traditionally measured by specifying the amounts of Red, Green and Blue lights which would be needed to match it. They then defined a system of measurement units and measurement procedures which enables any colour to be specified in terms of the amount of the three standard lights that would be needed to match it. To achieve this you need to multiply the spectral data by the colour matching functions for the observer you wish to use (usually the CIE 1931 Standard Colororimetric Observer) and the illuminant you want to use (presumably D50).
In ISO 13655, the observer and illuminant data are pre-multiplied and for ICC applications these are what should be used (unless you have a spectrophotometer that measures at 5nm bandpass ? But if you don't have those a good approximation can be obtained by using data interpolated from the 5nm interval data which CIE publish and which can be found in any good book on colour, and on a number of websites such as The coefficients of the matrix depend upon the illuminants one is converting to and from and the assumptions one wants to make about the best 'visual space' for doing this.
The most popular among many users seems to be the linear part of what is known as the Bradford transform, though more recent transforms perform slightly better.
The two main types of profiles are source (input) and destination (output) profiles and essentially consist of tables of data that relate the device co-ordinates to those of the standard colour space defined by ICC. Thus, for example, a printer or monitor alone cannot easily support ICC profiles - unless it has a software application driving it that allows you to define the input profile to go with it so that the transformation can be calculated.The CIE tristimulus values for the Munsell colours have been published (see Color Science by Wyszecki and Stiles - published by Wiley, for example). In such a case, it is probably better to make the measurements without fluorescence and a number of people argue that since most viewing booths have a lower UV content than the daylight they are supposed to simulate this is the better approach generally.An error then arises if you use a viewing condition with a higher UV content such as natural daylight, but the argument is that this is rarely done.Based on experiments in which observers were asked to match various colours by mixing three coloured lights, the international colour standards body International Commission on Illumination (CIE) defined a ? as the average of these observers for a specific set of ? These are the CIE XYZ values, and other quantities such as CIELAB are caclulated from them. You do this for each wavelength and then sum the three sets of data you get from this. The conversion from D50 to D65 requires a chromatic adaptation transform (CAT).There is more information about CIE colorimetry on our web-site and there are some good books about (see the list above). You then need to normalise the data so that you get 100 for Y for the reference white - usually the perfect diffuser, but it may be white paper. Various methods are in common use - most of which employ a 3 x 3 matrix transformation.
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IS&T and SPIE run conferences which cover colour management topics. Representatives from the ICC member companies developed the specification jointly, and update it as necessary. It possesses the attributes of Brightness, Colourfulness and Hue. Beige is also certainly a colour - a chromatic colour. Spectrophotometry is the measurement of the reflectance or tranmittance of a sample at discrete wavelengths. Most of the cheaper instruments available today are reasonably accurate for reflecting media without steep changes in spectral reflectance, which is the case for most pigments. There are various companies producing colour measuring equipment among ICC members. The following books are good sources of information on the subject: Of the above Color Science is probably the most complete reference book. Color Engineering and Color Vision and Colorimetry are probably better for a beginner, but not as complete as Measuring Colour. Amongst our members Alwan Color Expertise, Gretag-Macbeth and X-rite provide them. Should I include or exclude the fluorescence in my measurements? The instrument that excites the UV will therefore tell you what it will look like - so long as both the spectrophotometer illuminant and your viewing illuminant have similar amounts of power in UV region.